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Privacy and Cookies

Data Security

Website Terms and Conditions

Software Licensing Terms


Privacy and Cookies

We may change this privacy notice from time to time by updating this page.

What information do we collect?

When you use this website, we may collect the following information:

  • the areas of the website that you visit
  • information about your computer, such as which browser you are using, your network location, the type of connection you are using (e.g. broadband, ADSL etc) and your IP address

We do this by using cookies, which are small files that help us track how our visitors use the website and enable us to understand where we can improve your experience. If you would like to find out which cookies we use and the information they track see our Cookies Policy.

Once you submit or register information through our website we will know who you are and your activities on this website and information about you and/or your company may be recorded on our systems. For example, we may ask for personal information when you download our software including:

  • your name
  • company name
  • email address
  • postal address
  • telephone number
  • country where you are based
  • Social media ID
  • your comments/questions
  • services/markets you are interested in

We may also collect personal information from telephone calls and/or other correspondence with you.

What do we do with the information we collect?

The information we capture is used for various purposes. The main purpose is to provide you with our services (whether available via the website or offline). We also use the information for:

  • website development
  • understanding how our visitors interact on the website
  • understanding what our clients are interested in
  • understanding what potential clients are interested in
  • dealing with enquiries/concerns
  • marketing our services and people to you
  • market research
  • service development
  • internal record keeping

Marketing

We would like to provide you with information about our services and other information which we think you may find interesting. We may send you such information by post, email and/or telephone, unless you have asked us not to do so.

We will not provide your personal information to other organisations for marketing purposes without your explicit consent.

If at any time you do not want your information used for direct marketing purposes, please contact us or follow the unsubscribe link in our marketing email messages.

Who do we share this information with?

We may share your personal information with companies acting on our behalf who will only use the information to provide that service. However, we will retain control of your data and any third party service provider that we use must act in accordance with our instructions. We may also share your personal information with a purchaser or potential purchaser of our business.

In some circumstances, we may have to disclose your personal information by law, because a court or the police or other law enforcement agency has asked us for it.

How to get copies of or amend the information we have collected

You may request details of the personal information that we hold about you under data protection laws. If you would like a copy of the information held about you please write to us at oasys@arup.com or at: Data Protection Officer, 13 Fitzroy Street, London, UK, W1T 4BQ. Please note that we may charge a small £10 administration fee for information requests.

If you think any information we have about you is incorrect or incomplete, please email us as soon as possible. We will correct or update any information as soon as we can.

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Data Security

We are committed to ensuring that your information is secure. In order to prevent unauthorised access or disclosure we have put in place suitable physical, electronic and managerial procedures to safeguard and secure the information we collect, including locked cabinets, electronic password protection and pass card access to buildings.

If at any point you suspect or receive a suspicious communication from someone suggesting they work for Oasys or a website claiming to be affiliated with Oasys, please forward the communication to us or report the incident by email to oasys@arup.com or in writing to Oasys, 13 Fitzroy Street, London, UK, W1T 4BQ as soon as possible.

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Website Terms and Conditions

The contents of this web site are protected by copyright and other intellectual property rights under international conventions. No copying of any words, images, graphic representations or other information contained in this web site is permitted without the prior written permission of the webmaster for this site.

Oasys accepts no responsibility for the content of any external site that links to or from this site.

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Software Licensing Terms

Terms and Conditions of Purchase

The full conditions of purchase and maintenance for all Oasys software are set out in the Oasys Software Licence and Support Agreement. All prices are subject to TAX at the current rate.

Prices and specifications are subject to change without notice – please ask for a written quotation.

Although every care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of all information contained herein, the contents do not form or constitute a representation, warranty, or part of any contract.

Superseded Versions of Terms and Conditions

Oasys keeps copies of all superseded versions of its terms and conditions.

Maintenance & Support Services

Twelve months support and maintenance is included with most products. Thereafter maintenance is typically 20% of the current sales price.

An annual maintenance service is available for most programs after the first year.

This service includes:

  • telephone/fax/email/web based support
  • free software updates available via internet download
  • personalised output header for many products

Hong Kong Cut and Cover Tunnels

Software Used on this Project

Project Overview

The Kowloon Canton Railway Corporation (KCRC) constructed the the 7.4km Lok Ma Chau Spurline section of the rail crossing between Hong Kong SAR and Mainland China . The design and build contract, ‘LBD201 – Sheung Shui to Chau Tau Tunnels’ forms part of the Spurline and comprises the design and construction of 3.6km of 8.75m excavated diameter twin bored tunnels and approximately 1.4km of cut-and-cover approach tunnels and associated structures.

This case study focuses on the back analysis of the particularly challenging East Approach cut-and-cover tunnels section of the project, which has recently been completed. The results of the back analysis showed the ground stiffness to be consistent with other published data.

 

How Oasys proved invaluable

Ove Arup and Partners Hong Kong Ltd were commissioned by DJV to carry out the detailed design.

The construction and monitoring method used to build the 700m long section of cut-and-cover tunnels to the north of Sheung Shui station has been described in detail by Storry et al (2005). It involved excavations of up to 14m deep and 20m wide, within 1.5m of the live KCRC East Rail mainlines and within 1m of the Dongjiang Watermains, which supply Hong Kong’s potable water from China. Control of ground movements was critical to minimise disruption.

The East Approach cut-and-cover tunnels were constructed within restricted land boundaries and could not impact on the operation of the existing mainline. The final design required two singlebox cut-and-cover tunnels to be constructed side-by-side, both at different levels, ramping down into the main bored tunnels section.

The full length of the East Approach cut-and-cover tunnels was split into sections to facilitate construction. These were formed within temporary sheet-pile wall box excavations varying from 8m to 20m in width. The figure below shows one of the strutted sheet-pile excavations under construction sandwiched between the live railway and the watermains.

Ground Monitoring

The system of monitoring instrumentation was a key component in satisfying the railway operator and Water Supplies Department (WSD) of the robustness of the design and the suitability of the construction methods. The instrumentation included:

  • Ground deformation monitoring points on adjacent existing structures and utilities sensitive to movement;
  • Piezometers to monitor ground water levels around the excavations;
  • Inclinometers (installed within steel tubes that were welded and driven together with the sheet-piles) to monitor deflection of the temporary retaining walls; and
  • Real-time monitoring of the existing and diverted East Rail tracks.

Geotechnical Design

The design of the retaining walls and the strutting sequence was done using the OASYS Frew software, which outputs the lateral displacement of the pile face. To convert this into vertical and lateral movements behind the wall, the recommendations of CIRIA Report C580, on the soil deformation analysis and radius of influence were adopted.

The effect on the groundwater was estimated using seepage analysis. Assumptions on the ground movement profile were verified using two-dimensional finite element computations undertaken in OASYS Safe.

Ground movement predictions were carried out based on free field predictions of movement. Structural stiffness was not considered when assessing building, structure and utility movements, so these predictions were considered conservative.

Back Analysis – Comparison to Ground Monitoring Data

Inclinometer monitoring of the sheet-pile wall confirmed that the displacements of the retaining walls were well within those predicted by the design.

Back analysis was carried out based on the observed wall deflections to determine the actual ground stiffness.

The construction sequence at these sections can be summarised as follows:

  1. Install temporary sheet-pile walls and conduct pumping test to demonstrate water-tightness of the cofferdam;
  2. Excavate and install temporary top strut, S1;
  3. Excavate and install temporary lower strut, S2;
  4. Excavate to the final excavation level and install base slab and lower wall;
  5. Remove strut S2, and construct the remaining wall and roof slab of the permanent tunnel structure; and
  6. Remove strut S1.

A comparison of the predicated and actual wall movements are shown.

It can be noted that the actual wall deflections were less than those predicted during design. This is considered to be due to the adoption of conservative soil parameters, actual ground water levels about 0.5m below the design water levels and live loads from the trains not being permanently applied.

Back analysis was carried out by enhancing the soil stiffnesses to obtain a best fit of the wall deflection profile. Corresponding wall deflections are shown below for steps taken to ‘match’ the measured wall deflections, which can be summarised as follows:

Step 0: Use actual ground water levels and ignoring live loads from trains.
Step 1: Increase stiffness of CDV to 4N.
Step 2: Increase stiffness of coarse alluvium to 4N.
Step 3: Increase stiffness of fill to 1.5N.

A detailed discussion of the back analyses is available in the Pan et al paper.

In general, the back-analysed stiffness values compare favourably with case histories of other excavation projects in Hong Kong.

As for the effects of wall friction, this is dependent on the condition of the sheet-pile and the method of installation. The back analysis demonstrates that the wall friction could lie between 0.5 and1.0 Æ’. 

Construction

The LDB201 East Approach cut-and-cover tunnels have been successfully constructed within a narrow strip of land 1.5m from a live railway and 1m from one of Hong Kong’s primary water supplies.

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