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Terms & Conditions

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Privacy and Cookies

Data Security

Website Terms and Conditions

Software Licensing Terms


Privacy and Cookies

We may change this privacy notice from time to time by updating this page.

What information do we collect?

When you use this website, we may collect the following information:

  • the areas of the website that you visit
  • information about your computer, such as which browser you are using, your network location, the type of connection you are using (e.g. broadband, ADSL etc) and your IP address

We do this by using cookies, which are small files that help us track how our visitors use the website and enable us to understand where we can improve your experience. If you would like to find out which cookies we use and the information they track see our Cookies Policy.

Once you submit or register information through our website we will know who you are and your activities on this website and information about you and/or your company may be recorded on our systems. For example, we may ask for personal information when you download our software including:

  • your name
  • company name
  • email address
  • postal address
  • telephone number
  • country where you are based
  • Social media ID
  • your comments/questions
  • services/markets you are interested in

We may also collect personal information from telephone calls and/or other correspondence with you.

What do we do with the information we collect?

The information we capture is used for various purposes. The main purpose is to provide you with our services (whether available via the website or offline). We also use the information for:

  • website development
  • understanding how our visitors interact on the website
  • understanding what our clients are interested in
  • understanding what potential clients are interested in
  • dealing with enquiries/concerns
  • marketing our services and people to you
  • market research
  • service development
  • internal record keeping

Marketing

We would like to provide you with information about our services and other information which we think you may find interesting. We may send you such information by post, email and/or telephone, unless you have asked us not to do so.

We will not provide your personal information to other organisations for marketing purposes without your explicit consent.

If at any time you do not want your information used for direct marketing purposes, please contact us or follow the unsubscribe link in our marketing email messages.

Who do we share this information with?

We may share your personal information with companies acting on our behalf who will only use the information to provide that service. However, we will retain control of your data and any third party service provider that we use must act in accordance with our instructions. We may also share your personal information with a purchaser or potential purchaser of our business.

In some circumstances, we may have to disclose your personal information by law, because a court or the police or other law enforcement agency has asked us for it.

How to get copies of or amend the information we have collected

You may request details of the personal information that we hold about you under data protection laws. If you would like a copy of the information held about you please write to us at oasys@arup.com or at: Data Protection Officer, 13 Fitzroy Street, London, UK, W1T 4BQ. Please note that we may charge a small £10 administration fee for information requests.

If you think any information we have about you is incorrect or incomplete, please email us as soon as possible. We will correct or update any information as soon as we can.

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Data Security

We are committed to ensuring that your information is secure. In order to prevent unauthorised access or disclosure we have put in place suitable physical, electronic and managerial procedures to safeguard and secure the information we collect, including locked cabinets, electronic password protection and pass card access to buildings.

If at any point you suspect or receive a suspicious communication from someone suggesting they work for Oasys or a website claiming to be affiliated with Oasys, please forward the communication to us or report the incident by email to oasys@arup.com or in writing to Oasys, 13 Fitzroy Street, London, UK, W1T 4BQ as soon as possible.

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Website Terms and Conditions

The contents of this web site are protected by copyright and other intellectual property rights under international conventions. No copying of any words, images, graphic representations or other information contained in this web site is permitted without the prior written permission of the webmaster for this site.

Oasys accepts no responsibility for the content of any external site that links to or from this site.

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Software Licensing Terms

Terms and Conditions of Purchase

The full conditions of purchase and maintenance for all Oasys software are set out in the Oasys Software Licence and Support Agreement. All prices are subject to TAX at the current rate.

Prices and specifications are subject to change without notice – please ask for a written quotation.

Although every care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of all information contained herein, the contents do not form or constitute a representation, warranty, or part of any contract.

Superseded Versions of Terms and Conditions

Oasys keeps copies of all superseded versions of its terms and conditions.

Maintenance & Support Services

Twelve months support and maintenance is included with most products. Thereafter maintenance is typically 20% of the current sales price.

An annual maintenance service is available for most programs after the first year.

This service includes:

  • telephone/fax/email/web based support
  • free software updates available via internet download
  • personalised output header for many products

National Aquatic Centre, Beijing, China

Software Used on this Project

Project Overview

The National Aquatics Centre, home to all the diving and swimming events, is one of the star attractions of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Seating 17,000 spectators and has a total floor space of 70,000m², the ‘Water Cube’ will be used both during the Games and afterwards as a multi-purpose leisure and elite swimming centre.

In July 2003, the consortium of Arup, architecture firm PTW, the China State Construction and Engineering Corporation (CSCEC) and the CSCEC Shenzhen Design Institute (CSCEC+DESIGN) won the international design competition for the National Aquatics Centre for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. The team based the design on the common natural and three-dimensional pattern: the way that soap bubbles form and interconnect to fill a space in the most efficient way.

Primary Structure

The structure of the building is a 3D vierendeel space frame 176m * 176m * 29m high based on a geometric cell made up of 12 pentagons and two hexagons that is 3-dimensionally repeatable without leaving any empty spaces. All walls are approximately 3.6m thick and the roof zone 7.2m deep. The final structure is comprised of 22,000 tubular steel members connected by 12,000 nodes.

Although the organic design of the building’s structure appears random, the unique geometry is actually highly repetitive and buildable. The resulting structure is very ductile and ideally suited to the seismic conditions found in Beijing.

How Oasys proved invaluable

Bubble Design

Vector Special Projects won the contract to supply the Ethylene Tetra Fluoro Ethylene (ETFE) foil cushions that form the cladding and employed David Dexter Associates (DDA) to analyse and design them.

DDA brought in GSA to do the work: they realised that nothing else would do.

DDA imported the bubble geometries direct from Arup’s 3D fabrication model into GSA. This maximized the accuracy of the analyses and subsequent fabrication of the cladding.

The large cushions are actually in three layers (outer, middle and inner), with their contained air pressurised to 200pa, giving an effect similar to a cavity wall. The middle layer is mostly there for thermal and acoustic insulation, but also acts as a safety measure in the unlikely case of the outer later being punctured. While DDA believe that damage from bird strikes is unlikely to pierce the ETFE foil, there is a perceived risk from flying debris in the typhoons that Beijing experiences.

The pillow pressures are maintained by active pressure monitoring. If a roof pillow did collapse then water ponding could be a problem and would have to be dealt with by the maintenance crews. The pillow pressure will be sufficient for snow loads without snapping through.

Form-finding

The form finding of the small cushions was straightforward, as they were simply cut to fit the openings and inflated to the operating pressure of 200pa. This caused the ETFE to yield and deform plastically, thus finding the final shape organically.

With the large cushions, this method is not a possibility, as they would have to yield beyond acceptable limits. Form finding was thus necessary to find the initial geometry of the foil and thus prevent overstressing.

DDA used GSA’s soap-film method, which finds the minimum surface area between boundaries, combined with a surface pressure to push the membrane out to the final position. GSA can also form-find using the force-density method (typically used for cable nets) and by forcing permanent large deflections. All three techniques use dynamic relaxation algorithms.

Analysis

GSA analysis for wind pressure

GSA analysis for initial pressure

Once DDA had completed the form-finding operation, the next stage was to use non-linear analysis to ensure that no foil was overstressed under the service loads, which included internal air pressures, external wind and snow.

To ensure that the analysis was accurate, the ETFE supplier, Vector, supplied the material properties and RWDI conducted wind tunnel tests to measure the aerodynamic forces.

As the ETFE foil can only carry tension forces, all external loads are actually carried by the surface away from application. In other words, when the wind blows on the outside, the foil membrane on the inside resists it, with the load transmitted through the cushions by the internal air pressure. This reduces the prestress in the outer layer, but it should only go slack under extreme wind loads, such as are likely in a typhoon. Under normal wind loads, the outer layer will remain taut.

The result of this analysis was a foil thickness requirement for the fabricator and connection forces onto the supporting steelwork.

Fabrication and erection

Once the form-finding and analysis were complete, DDA handed the results to Vector for fabrication. As the ETFE foil comes on 1.7m wide strips, any cushion larger than that require welded seams. The cutting patterns for the small cushions were straightforward, as these yielded into their final shape and Vector could keep the foil strips rectangular. For the large cushions, they required a patterning exercise to derive the correct curved edges to the foil strips so that when they were joined, the overall membrane would already be close to the final curvature.

When the layered cushions were complete, they were shipped to Beijing and erected into place. Once in-situ, they were then inflated to their operating pressure of 200pa. The pumps will continuously maintain the pressures for the operating life of the cladding, with the actual pressures monitored for excessive leakage.

Conclusion

With its innovative architecture and leading edge engineering, the ‘Water Cube’ is rightly one of the centrepieces of the Beijing Olympics. As the eyes of the world will be on it for the Olympics, the ETFE ‘bubble’ cladding had to be right. As their lead engineer Gavin Sayers said, “We chose GSA to design the ‘Water Cube’ ETFE cushions because it was well respected and accepted. The intuitive interface was very useful for extracting results such as the principle stresses. It was the best choice for the job.”

"We chose GSA to design the 'Water Cube' ETFE cushions because it was well respected and accepted. The intuitive interface was very useful for extracting results such as the principle stresses. It was the best choice for the job."
Gavin Sayers, Lead Engineer

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