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Privacy and Cookies

Data Security

Website Terms and Conditions

Software Licensing Terms

Privacy and Cookies

We may change this privacy notice from time to time by updating this page.

What information do we collect?

When you use this website, we may collect the following information:

  • the areas of the website that you visit
  • information about your computer, such as which browser you are using, your network location, the type of connection you are using (e.g. broadband, ADSL etc) and your IP address

We do this by using cookies, which are small files that help us track how our visitors use the website and enable us to understand where we can improve your experience. If you would like to find out which cookies we use and the information they track see our Cookies Policy.

Once you submit or register information through our website we will know who you are and your activities on this website and information about you and/or your company may be recorded on our systems. For example, we may ask for personal information when you download our software including:

  • your name
  • company name
  • email address
  • postal address
  • telephone number
  • country where you are based
  • Social media ID
  • your comments/questions
  • services/markets you are interested in

We may also collect personal information from telephone calls and/or other correspondence with you.

What do we do with the information we collect?

The information we capture is used for various purposes. The main purpose is to provide you with our services (whether available via the website or offline). We also use the information for:

  • website development
  • understanding how our visitors interact on the website
  • understanding what our clients are interested in
  • understanding what potential clients are interested in
  • dealing with enquiries/concerns
  • marketing our services and people to you
  • market research
  • service development
  • internal record keeping


We would like to provide you with information about our services and other information which we think you may find interesting. We may send you such information by post, email and/or telephone, unless you have asked us not to do so.

We will not provide your personal information to other organisations for marketing purposes without your explicit consent.

If at any time you do not want your information used for direct marketing purposes, please contact us or follow the unsubscribe link in our marketing email messages.

Who do we share this information with?

We may share your personal information with companies acting on our behalf who will only use the information to provide that service. However, we will retain control of your data and any third party service provider that we use must act in accordance with our instructions. We may also share your personal information with a purchaser or potential purchaser of our business.

In some circumstances, we may have to disclose your personal information by law, because a court or the police or other law enforcement agency has asked us for it.

How to get copies of or amend the information we have collected

You may request details of the personal information that we hold about you under data protection laws. If you would like a copy of the information held about you please write to us at oasys@arup.com or at: Data Protection Officer, 13 Fitzroy Street, London, UK, W1T 4BQ. Please note that we may charge a small £10 administration fee for information requests.

If you think any information we have about you is incorrect or incomplete, please email us as soon as possible. We will correct or update any information as soon as we can.

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Data Security

We are committed to ensuring that your information is secure. In order to prevent unauthorised access or disclosure we have put in place suitable physical, electronic and managerial procedures to safeguard and secure the information we collect, including locked cabinets, electronic password protection and pass card access to buildings.

If at any point you suspect or receive a suspicious communication from someone suggesting they work for Oasys or a website claiming to be affiliated with Oasys, please forward the communication to us or report the incident by email to oasys@arup.com or in writing to Oasys, 13 Fitzroy Street, London, UK, W1T 4BQ as soon as possible.

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Website Terms and Conditions

The contents of this web site are protected by copyright and other intellectual property rights under international conventions. No copying of any words, images, graphic representations or other information contained in this web site is permitted without the prior written permission of the webmaster for this site.

Oasys accepts no responsibility for the content of any external site that links to or from this site.

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Software Licensing Terms

Terms and Conditions of Purchase

The full conditions of purchase and maintenance for all Oasys software are set out in the Oasys Software Licence and Support Agreement. All prices are subject to TAX at the current rate.

Prices and specifications are subject to change without notice – please ask for a written quotation.

Although every care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of all information contained herein, the contents do not form or constitute a representation, warranty, or part of any contract.

Superseded Versions of Terms and Conditions

Oasys keeps copies of all superseded versions of its terms and conditions.

Maintenance & Support Services

Support and maintenance is included with all subscription licences for their full duration.

Annual maintenance contracts are available for software under a perpetual licence, prices are based on a percentage of the most recent list price.

This service includes:

  • telephone/fax/email/web based support
  • free software updates available via internet download
  • personalised output header for many products

The Architecture of the Dragonfly Wing

Software Used on this Project

Project Overview

The work presented herein is part of a technical paper co-authored by Maria Mingallon (Arup, Senior Structural Engineer) and Sakthivel Ramaswamy (KRR Engineering, Director), published and presented at ASME 2011. The paper outlines the main findings of a broader biomimetics research study done at the Architectural Association as part of the master program in Emergent Technologies and Design. The aim was to derive the adaptable and performative logics of the dragonfly wing. Digital simulations in GSA were necessary to understand the multiple-pattern and corrugated geometries that give the wings their unique structural behavior and which are responsible for the high performance of dragonflies in passive flight.

Click here to download the full paper.

The morphology of the dragonfly wing is an optimal natural construction built by a complex patterning process, developed through evolution as a response to force flows and material organisation. The seemingly random variations of quadrangular and polygonal patterns follow multi-hierarchical organisational logics enabling it to alter between rigid and flexible configurations.

How Oasys proved invaluable

As the dragonfly wing is a highly dynamic structure, vibration studies were necessary to obtain realistic deformation patterns and understand the structural behaviour. Ten vibration modes were extracted from the modal analysis performed in GSA. Our eyes have difficulties distinguishing the third, fourth and fifth vibration modes (which occur almost simultaneously) due to the high frequencies exhibited. In our case, slow motion pictures featuring the real flight of the dragonfly allowed us to identify up to the third mode of vibration by comparison with that calculated in the analysis.

The resulting images featuring the different modes of vibration of the wing illustrate the correlation described earlier between the geometrical patterns and the different degrees of flexibility. The rectangular pattern found at the uppermost zone of the wing is designed to withstand load perpendicular to the leading edge taken by the wing during flight, while corrugations help with resisting loads perpendicular to the plane of the wing.


A torsional wave at the trailing edge can be observed throughout the different modes; this is due to the tendency of the elements closer to the wing’s tip to twist ahead of those nearer to the base. The nodus, located at the leading edge, acts as both reinforcement and shock absorber to the wing. The nodus copes with combined torsion and bending stress concentrations at the junction of the rigid concave ante-nodal and the torsionally compliant post-nodal spars. The concentration of stresses and bending moments must have imposed strong selection pressure in the development of the nodus, which combines a stress absorbing strip of soft cuticle with strong, three dimensional cross bars across the entire spar between the costal margin and the leading edge.

The deformed modal shapes demonstrate that the pentagonal-hexagonal pattern is designed to deform and thus provide the thrust necessary to keep the dragonfly in the air. The 120° angle present in these geometries allows for the polygons to reorganise from a single plane to form a concave surface, using much less energy than that of the rectangular pattern.

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