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Terms & Conditions

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Privacy and Cookies

Data Security

Website Terms and Conditions

Software Licensing Terms


Privacy and Cookies

We may change this privacy notice from time to time by updating this page.

What information do we collect?

When you use this website, we may collect the following information:

  • the areas of the website that you visit
  • information about your computer, such as which browser you are using, your network location, the type of connection you are using (e.g. broadband, ADSL etc) and your IP address

We do this by using cookies, which are small files that help us track how our visitors use the website and enable us to understand where we can improve your experience. If you would like to find out which cookies we use and the information they track see our Cookies Policy.

Once you submit or register information through our website we will know who you are and your activities on this website and information about you and/or your company may be recorded on our systems. For example, we may ask for personal information when you download our software including:

  • your name
  • company name
  • email address
  • postal address
  • telephone number
  • country where you are based
  • Social media ID
  • your comments/questions
  • services/markets you are interested in

We may also collect personal information from telephone calls and/or other correspondence with you.

What do we do with the information we collect?

The information we capture is used for various purposes. The main purpose is to provide you with our services (whether available via the website or offline). We also use the information for:

  • website development
  • understanding how our visitors interact on the website
  • understanding what our clients are interested in
  • understanding what potential clients are interested in
  • dealing with enquiries/concerns
  • marketing our services and people to you
  • market research
  • service development
  • internal record keeping

Marketing

We would like to provide you with information about our services and other information which we think you may find interesting. We may send you such information by post, email and/or telephone, unless you have asked us not to do so.

We will not provide your personal information to other organisations for marketing purposes without your explicit consent.

If at any time you do not want your information used for direct marketing purposes, please contact us or follow the unsubscribe link in our marketing email messages.

Who do we share this information with?

We may share your personal information with companies acting on our behalf who will only use the information to provide that service. However, we will retain control of your data and any third party service provider that we use must act in accordance with our instructions. We may also share your personal information with a purchaser or potential purchaser of our business.

In some circumstances, we may have to disclose your personal information by law, because a court or the police or other law enforcement agency has asked us for it.

How to get copies of or amend the information we have collected

You may request details of the personal information that we hold about you under data protection laws. If you would like a copy of the information held about you please write to us at oasys@arup.com or at: Data Protection Officer, 13 Fitzroy Street, London, UK, W1T 4BQ. Please note that we may charge a small £10 administration fee for information requests.

If you think any information we have about you is incorrect or incomplete, please email us as soon as possible. We will correct or update any information as soon as we can.

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Data Security

We are committed to ensuring that your information is secure. In order to prevent unauthorised access or disclosure we have put in place suitable physical, electronic and managerial procedures to safeguard and secure the information we collect, including locked cabinets, electronic password protection and pass card access to buildings.

If at any point you suspect or receive a suspicious communication from someone suggesting they work for Oasys or a website claiming to be affiliated with Oasys, please forward the communication to us or report the incident by email to oasys@arup.com or in writing to Oasys, 13 Fitzroy Street, London, UK, W1T 4BQ as soon as possible.

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Website Terms and Conditions

The contents of this web site are protected by copyright and other intellectual property rights under international conventions. No copying of any words, images, graphic representations or other information contained in this web site is permitted without the prior written permission of the webmaster for this site.

Oasys accepts no responsibility for the content of any external site that links to or from this site.

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Software Licensing Terms

Terms and Conditions of Purchase

The full conditions of purchase and maintenance for all Oasys software are set out in the Oasys Software Licence and Support Agreement. All prices are subject to TAX at the current rate.

Prices and specifications are subject to change without notice – please ask for a written quotation.

Although every care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of all information contained herein, the contents do not form or constitute a representation, warranty, or part of any contract.

Superseded Versions of Terms and Conditions

Oasys keeps copies of all superseded versions of its terms and conditions.

Maintenance & Support Services

Twelve months support and maintenance is included with most products. Thereafter maintenance is typically 20% of the current sales price.

An annual maintenance service is available for most programs after the first year.

This service includes:

  • telephone/fax/email/web based support
  • free software updates available via internet download
  • personalised output header for many products

Validating MassMotion for adolescent behaviour

Adding further validations past the IMO and NIST

It is well known that validation is considered by engineers as being a key factor when deciding which software package to use for simulating evacuations.

Now the gap in validation studies for MassMotion with a focus on children and their movement in low-rise buildings has been filled by Edinburgh University Master’s students Alexandru Dragan and Codrin Mihnea Florescu. Their paper was highly commended in the biennial Oasys Project of the Year Competition to find innovative and new uses of our software…

The Paper

MassMotion is currently verified in accordance with the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) 1238 and the National Institute of Standards (NIST) Technical Note 1822. Furthermore, a 2016 research project in collaboration with Carleton University provides insights and guidance into modelling elderly populations: data collected during fire drills was used in comparison with associated evacuation modelling results using MassMotion to create a validation case study.

Children present greater behavioural uncertainties. Stairs do not seem to slow them down so much, and speed/density curves may differ from adults, as they move faster even in crowded conditions. So, the factors built into the MassMotion algorithms are not always appropriate. However, MassMotion enables users to bypass the default adult settings during the project.

Drawing on data from previous evacuation trials in German, Spanish and Brazilian schools, different scenarios and essential differences in culture, number of agents, agent profiles and geometry were considered. The original Spanish school study had included a comparison between three other software packages and was provided as a benchmark comparison.

Bypass Methods

Slight alterations to parameters embedded in the model’s source code allowed for the unique attributes of younger population and school buildings.

Firstly, MassMotion calculates the vertical movement speeds as less than 57.4% of the horizontal travel speeds. Empirical data indicates that the clear majority of measured vertical speeds on stairs for children are above 57.4% of the horizontal movement speeds. They by-passed this quite easily by setting all stairs as being virtually horizontal.

Slightly more complex was the second limitation of the model, related to the speed/density relationship. MassMotion incorporates John Fruin’s Levels of Service to simulate the reduction effect that local density has on an agent’s movement speed. However, studies by Larusdottir and Dederichs have shown that the speed/density curves for young populations may differ from the ones for adults, as children tend to move faster even in crowded conditions.

In addition, the empirical data being used for validation exercises already includes reduced speeds due to crowding behaviour. If this data is used as input, there is a risk that the speed reductions owing to increased densities are applied twice, which would produce overly-conservative results. So, the study aimed to investigate whether discarding the model’s underlying imposed speed reductions (due to crowding) would generate more accurate results for this age group.

The imposed speed reduction factor was inspected as both On (default model configuration) and Off (manual override) for all scenarios together with the Default and Adjusted stair angles (vertical speeds equal to horizontal speeds).

Analysis and Results

The simulations are carried out based methodology described by Cuesta et. al and Peacock et. al. which ensure that enough simulations are run for each scenario in order for the results to converge towards an average.

In terms of the high-level results of all the 5 evacuation scenarios (total evacuation times and average evacuation times), the accuracy of the simulated data varies widely from scenario to scenario, and seems to be directly proportional to the level of detail of empirical input data (available in the studies). The most accurate results for the Spanish and Brazilian studies are offered by the Fruin Off Adjusted Stair simulation cases, which involved faster movement speeds, even in crowded conditions. The German study is best replicated by Fruin On Adjusted Stair simulation cases, which involved slower movement speeds and hindered movement in crowded conditions. The results seem to indicate that there are cultural differences that may be incorporated into simulations by choosing to use the proposed bypass methods.

In the Spanish school evacuation study, which also presented simulated data from three other modelling packages, it was seen that MassMotion is best in predicting the total evacuation times and average evacuation times, and also when compared with experimental curves using functional analysis.

Additional Tests

The final stage of the project investigated the influence of three key: total number of agents, their horizontal movement speed and their body radius. The social force algorithm coupled with the route choice algorithm form a highly complex representation of reality, but rely on Newtonian dynamics. The tests indicated that the algorithms’ complexity is still not sufficient for modelling some social interactions and that further research in this area is necessary. (Note: MassMotion 9.0 provides new tools for defining agent behaviour in response to internal agendas and external influences.)

Full Paper

Bibliography

Cuesta, A., Ronchi, E. & Gwynne, S. M., 2015. Collection and Use of Data From School Egress Trials. Cambridge, Interscience Communications.

Kinsey, M. J. & Ronchi , E., 2011. Evacuation Models of the Future: Insights from an Online Survey of User’s Experiences. Santander, unpublished.

Klupfel, H., Meyer-Konig, T. & Schreckenberg, M., 2003. Comparison of an Evacuation Exercise in a Primary School to Simulation Results. Traffic and Granular Flow, Volume 1, pp. 549-554.

Larusdottir, A. R. & Dederichs, A. S., 2012. Evacuation of Children: Movement on Stairs and oh Horizontal Plane. Fire Technology, 48(1), pp. 43-53.

Lubas, R., Mycek, M., Porzycki, J. & Was, J., 2014. Verification and Validation of Evacuation Models – Methodology Expansion Proposition. Nootdorp, Pedestrian Evacuation Dynamics.

Peacock, R. D., Reneke, P. A., Davis, W. D. & Jones, W. W., 1999. Quantifying Fire Model Evaluation using Functional Analysis. Fire Safety Journal, Volume 33, pp. 167-184.

Rosaria, O., Valentin, M. V. & Vittorino, F., 2012. Walking Speed Data at an Elementary School. s.l., Human Behaviour in Fire.

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